Project by Mahsa & Amanda~

A little about Cancer.

Cancer is a scary word. Almost everyone knows someone who get very sick or died from cancer. Most of the time, cancer affects older people. Not many kids get cancer, but when they do, very often it can be treated and cured.

What is cancer?

Cancer is actully a group of many related diseases that all have to do with cells. Cells are the very small units that make up all living things, including the human body. There are billions of cells in each person's body.
Cancer happens when cells that are not normal grow and spread very fast. Normal body cells grow and divide and know to stop growing. Over time, they also die. Unlike these normal cells, cancer cells just continue to grow and divide out of control and don't die.
Cancer cells usually group of clump together to form tumors. A growing tumor becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumor and damage the body's healthy tissues. This can make someone very sick.
Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel to other areas of the body, where they keep growing and can go on to form new tumors. This is how Cancer spreads.

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Definition of lung cancer:

Lung Cancer is a disease in which the cells of lung tissues grow uncontrollably and form tumors. A tumor is a mass or lump of tissues made or abnormal cells.


Lung cancer is one of the most leading causes of death. From cancer both men and women in the U.S. Experts think that 28 percent of all cancer deaths-about 160,000 are mostly caused by lung cancer. It is further estimated that at least 172,000 new cause of lung cancer are diagnosed each year. There are two kinds of lung cancer, primary and Secondary. Primary lung cancer starts in the lungs. Secondary lung cancer starts somewhere else in the body, cancer cells then spread to the lungs and start a new infection. When cancer cells travel from one area of the body to another it is called metastasis. When this happens, a cancer is said to have metastasized.
The major cause of lung cancer is tobacco smoking. Ninety percent of all causes of lung cancer are thought to be caused by smoking. Some other factors that may lead to lung cancer include:
-Family history. People with relatives who have had lung cancer are at slightly higher risk for contracting(getting) lung cancer.


The most common symptoms of lung cancer include:
-a cough that does not go away
-chest pain
-persistent hoarseness
-swelling of the nick and face
-significant weight loss that cannot be explained by other factors
-fatigue and loss of appetite
-unexplained fever
-Recurrent lung infections

Smoking and cancer:
More than 45,000 people in Canada will die this year from all tobacco-related diseases and many of these deaths will be caused by lung cancer. Although other factors can cause lung cancer,smoking is responsibile for 85 percent of all new causes.

How smoking damages your lungs?
Tobacco smoke contains at least 50 known cancer-causing agents. Over years smoking tar collects and forms a sticky layer which reduces the ability of the lungs to get rid of harmful particles and retain the carcin-orgens present in tobacco smoke.

How smoking causes cancer:
The development of lung cancer is probably the result of irritation caused by smoking and the accumulation of chemical dusts and particulates. Irritation, when constantly stimulated, triggers inflammation and this brings about a destruction of the lung's cleansing membrance. The replacement scar tissue does not have the same ability to neutralize the harmful cancer-causing particles inhaled in smoke and this leads to the development of cancer

Definition of Lymphoma/Hodgkins:

Hodgkin's a disease is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of blood vessels,tissues and other structures that carry lymph through the body. Lymph is a bloodlike fluid that carries substances from cells to blood vessels.
A variety of cancers can affect lymph tissues. These cancers are called lymphomas. Hodgkin's a disease is one kind of lymphoma. It is also called Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The cause of Hodgkin's disease is unknown.
Many experts believe that genetic and enviromental factors work together to cause the disease.


Hodgkin's lymphoma can accur at any age. It is most common, however, in people between the ages of 15 and 34 and after the age of 60. An understanding of the lymphatic system is neccessary in order to understand the nature of Hodgkins lymphoma.

The Lymphatic system:

Lymph is usually a clear, colorless liquid that forms in the space between cells throughout the body. It consists of waste products from those cells.
Lymph is drained into tiny vessels, like blood vessels thse vessels from a network of tubes that eventually leads to large veins at the bass of the points in this network, lymph passes through small lumps of tissue known as lymph nodes.


Hodgkin's lymphoma usually begins in a lymph node. The node enlarges and may or may not become painful. The cancer typically moves from one lymph to another nearby lymph node. Eventually, cancer cells can be carried to other orgins in the body, including the spleen, liver and bone marrow.


Some of the early symptoms of Hodgkin's Lymphoma include fever, weight loss, heavy sweating at night, and itching. Some patients report that drinking alcoholic beverages man cause pain in the infected area.
As lymph nodes swell, they man push on other nearby structures. This pressure may also cause pain and other kinds of discomfort. For example nerves may be pinched, causing pain and loss of muscular control. Pressure on the ureters, the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, can cause kidney failure. Pressure on veins in the fact, nick and legs can reduce blood flow and cause swelling in respiratory system can cause wheezing and shortness of breath. Abnormal tissue growth in the liver can cause an accumulation of poisons, resulting in jaundice. Jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eye. It is a common sign of liver disease.